History of oyster
    There exists currently two oyster species raised in France, the oyster punt (Ostrea edulis) and the hollow oyster (Crassostrea gigas). But it does not have any always was thus. The oyster punt populates Northern Europe, of Norway with France, while passing by Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland. We also find it in Spain and in Morocco. Its distribution extends until in the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea.
Abundant on the coasts of Europe to quaternary and with the Gallo-Roman time, Ostrea edulis is the indigenous oyster of France and in particular of Marenne oyster. The Romans took along our oysters punts to Rome.
In order to face an oyster punts shortage, the Basin of Arcachon was essential from 1860 of hollow oysters of Portugal, the Crassostrea species angulata.C' is during one of its transport, that a boat " Morlaisien " rejected its cargo in putrefaction in the mouth of the Gironde, thus allowing the establishment of this oyster digs Crassostrea angulata.
This Portuguese oyster was touched by two epizooties (epidemic which strikes the animals) viral origin: the " disease of the gills " 1966 to 1970, followed virus disease hémocytaire of 1970 to 1973. This last disease it is accompanied by a massive mortality of the Portugueses and their disappearance of the coasts Frenchwomen.
Vis-a-vis with this catastrophe touching approximately 5000 oyster culturists, it was necessary to find a solution quickly: the substitution of species, from where the introduction of Japanese oyster originating in the Pacific, Crassostrea gigas. First transfers of the latter seem to go back to 1966. It acted of an oyster culturist fascinated by and the high quality growth rate of Crassostrea gigas, whereas the production of Crassostrea angulata regressed. First tests giving of good results, the oyster culturist decided to introduce other samples.
But " the Scientific and Technical Institute of Maritime Fishings " (ISTPM) proposed to stop this importation of fear of contamination, which involved the indignation of the profession. A visit of expert in Japan, was thus organized in 1969, in order to examine the potential sites of exploitation and the risks pathogenic, allowing the introduction of this exotic species on the French coasts. This Japanese oyster is present at sea of Okhotsk (Vladivostok), in the island Sakhaline (Russia), in Japan, in Korea and on the coast peaceful of North America (of Alaska with California). This species was also imported into Australia, in Canada like in the Western countries. The oyster punt is reached since 1974 of two parasitoses (there martelliose caused by Martellia refringens and the bonamiose caused by Bonamia ostrea).
This is why the production of oyster punt is maintaining in very very small quantity, from where the high commercial value of the latter. Today France produces primarily hollow oyster.